ROPS identification Effect of ROPS on visibility Shear hazards Guarding moving parts Operator's seat Restricted access Rider restriction Provision Use Start of shift inspection Securing tools and equipment Unattended equipment Securing elevated loads Assistance on grades Swinging equipment Clearance Obstructed view Pedestrian and equipment traffic Securing loads Restraint for cylindrical objects Lift truck loads Fuel oil and the safety of ships.
This concerns, in particular, the potential need for guidance and advice on possible safety issues relating to the implementation of the 0. The 0. The draft circular advises that Members States should urge fuel oil suppliers to take into account, as relevant: MEPC. The MSC will consider further measures to enhance the safety of ships relating to use of fuel oil, including possible enhancement of the SOLAS regulation relating to flashpoint.
Regulation 4. Regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI covers fuel oil quality and specifies requirements for fuel oil delivered to and used on board ships for example, the fuel should not contain added substances that jeopardize the safety of ships. Piracy and armed robbery against ships. So far in , incidents in West and Central African waters have accounted for about half of all reported incidents.
The MSC is expected to consider the efforts made by Member States, industry, and other stakeholders to address this problem, and what more action may be needed. E-navigation progress.
E-navigation is defined as "the harmonized collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of marine information on board and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment". The MSC is expected to approve:. Draft MSC circular on Guidelines fo r the standardization of user interface design for navigation equipment.
The aim is to promote improved standardization of the user interface and information used by seafarers to monitor, manage and perform navigational tasks will enhance situation awareness and improve safety of navigation. Draft amendments to the Performance standards for the presentation of navigation-related information on shipborne navigational displays resolution MSC.
The implementation date of the revised standard should be 1 January ; and for all other navigational displays on the bridge of a ship 1 July Draft SN. Draft MSC resolution on Guidance on the definition and harmonization of the format and structure of Maritime Services in the context of e navigation. The purpose of the guidance is to ensure that Maritime Services are implemented internationally in a standardized and harmonized format. All Maritime Services should be conformant with the International Hydrographic Organization IHO S framework standard, which specifies the method for data modelling and developing product specifications.
Draft MSC circular on Initial descriptions of maritime services in the context of e-navigation.
Changes due to Brexit
The circular includes what is intended to be the first draft of Maritime Service descriptions and is an initial contribution for the harmonization of their format and structure. The Initial descriptions are expected to be periodically updated, taking into account developments and related work on harmonization. Domestic ferry safety. Exposure may occur to either supervisors or to wage earners. Hazards that are common to nearly all construction-heat, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and stress-are not listed.
The classifications of construction trades used here are those used in the United States. It includes the construction trades as classified in the Standard Occupational Classification system developed by the US Department of Commerce. This system classifies the trades by the principal skills inherent in the trade. Chemical hazards are often airborne and can appear as dusts, fumes, mists, vapours or gases; thus, exposure usually occurs by inhalation, although some airborne hazards may settle on and be absorbed through the intact skin e. Chemical hazards also occur in liquid or semi-liquid state e.
Skin contact with chemicals in this state can occur in addition to possible inhalation of the vapour resulting in systemic poisoning or contact dermatitis. Chemicals might also be ingested with food or water, or might be inhaled by smoking. Elevated death rates from cancer of the lung and respiratory tree have been found among asbestos insulation workers, roofers, welders and some woodworkers. Lead poisoning occurs among bridge rehabilitation workers and painters, and heat stress from wearing full-body protective suits among hazardous-waste clean-up workers and roofers.
Alcoholism and other alcohol-related disease is more frequent than expected among construction workers. Specific occupational causes have not been identified, but it is possible that it is related to stress resulting from lack of control over employment prospects, heavy work demands or social isolation due to unstable working relationships. Physical hazards are present in every construction project.
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These hazards include noise, heat and cold, radiation, vibration and barometric pressure. Construction work often must be done in extreme heat or cold, in windy, rainy, snowy, or foggy weather or at night. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is encountered, as are extremes of barometric pressure. The machines that have transformed construction into an increasingly mechanized activity have also made it increasingly noisy.
The sources of noise are engines of all kinds e. Noise is present on demolition projects by the very activity of demolition. It affects not only the person operating a noise-making machine, but all those close-by and not only causes noise-induced hearing loss, but also masks other sounds that are important for communication and for safety.
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Pneumatic hammers, many hand tools and earth-moving and other large mobile machines also subject workers to segmental and whole-body vibration. Heat and cold hazards arise primarily because a large portion of construction work is conducted while exposed to the weather, the principal source of heat and cold hazards. Roofers are exposed to the sun, often with no protection, and often must heat pots of tar, thus receiving both heavy radiant and convective heat loads in addition to metabolic heat from physical labour.
Heavy equipment operators may sit beside a hot engine and work in an enclosed cab with windows and without ventilation.
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Those that work in an open cab with no roof have no protection from the sun. Workers in protective gear, such as that needed for removal of hazardous waste, may generate metabolic heat from hard physical labour and get little relief since they may be in an air-tight suit. A shortage of potable water or shade contributes to heat stress as well. Construction workers also work in especially cold conditions during the winter, with danger of frostbite and hypothermia and risk of slipping on ice. The principal sources of non-ionizing ultraviolet UV radiation are the sun and electric arc welding.
Exposure to ionizing radiation is less common, but can occur with x-ray inspection of welds, for example, or it may occur with instruments such as flow meters that use radioactive isotopes. Lasers are becoming more common and may cause injury, especially to the eyes, if the beam is intercepted.
Those who work under water or in pressurized tunnels, in caissons or as divers are exposed to high barometric pressure. Such workers are at risk of developing a variety of conditions associated with high pressure: decompression sickness, inert gas narcosis, aseptic bone necrosis and other disorders. Strains and sprains are among the most common injuries among construction workers.
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These, and many chronically disabling musculoskeletal disorders such as tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome and low-back pain occur as a result of either traumatic injury, repetitive forceful movements, awkward postures or overexertion see figure Falls due to unstable footing, unguarded holes and slips off scaffolding see figure Figure Biological hazards are presented by exposure to infectious micro-organisms, to toxic substances of biological origin or animal attacks. Excavation workers, for example, can develop histoplasmosis, an infection of the lung caused by a common soil fungus.
sichumnaku.tk Workers may also be at risk of malaria, yellow fever or Lyme disease if work is conducted in areas where these organisms and their insect vectors are prevalent. Toxic substances of plant origin come from poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac and nettles, all of which can cause skin eruptions. Some wood dusts are carcinogenic, and some e. Attacks by animals are rare but may occur whenever a construction project disturbs them or encroaches on their habitat. This could include wasps, hornets, fire ants, snakes and many others.
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Underwater workers may be at risk from attack by sharks or other fish. Social hazards stem from the social organization of the industry. Employment is intermittent and constantly changing, and control over many aspects of employment is limited because construction activity is dependent on many factors over which construction workers have no control, such as the state of an economy or the weather. Because of the same factors, there can be intense pressure to become more productive.